There are two different types of transplants: bone marrow transplants and peripheral blood stem-cell transplants (PBSCTs). The difference between the two depends on where the stem cells are taken from. In bone marrow transplants, the stem cells are taken from the bone marrow. In PBSCTs, the stem cells are taken from the circulating blood. PBSCTs are now more commonly performed than bone marrow transplants, as the procedure is easier and the body is able to regenerate new stem cells faster.
Transplants fall into three basic donor categories:
A syngeneic transplant is when the cells are donated by an identical twin. Allogeneic is when the donor’s basic cell is almost identical to the patient’s as with a close relative (brother or sister). Rarely is the basic cell type matched by an unrelated relative.
Autologous is when the patient’s own stem cells are removed from his or her bone marrow or bloodstream. With types of NHL that have spread to the bloodstream or bone marrow, it may be difficult to obtain uncontaminated cells or cells that can be used, even after treating them in a laboratory to remove or kill the NHL cells.
Marrow or cell transplantation is done to replace healthy cells that have been destroyed by cancer treatment. Bone marrow or stem cells that have been removed from a donor are carefully frozen and stored while the patient receives high-dose chemotherapy and sometimes whole-body radiation treatment. This process kills all or most normal stem and bone marrow, while destroying cancer cells. This leaves them defenseless against infection and unable to form blood. After therapy, the frozen marrow or cells are thawed and put back in the body. During the recovery period, all of the body’s systems must be carefully monitored for rejection, infection and the need for any supportive treatments.
Information taken from https://www.lymphoma.ca/lymphoma/patient-journey/treatment/bone-marrow-transplant