Docs Tag: stomach

Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease GERE

Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)

Picture of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)

In GERD, the valve at the top of the stomach (where the stomach and the esophagus connect) does not close tightly enough. This allows the contents of the stomach to move up into the esophagus.

GERD usually causes a feeling of burning, warmth, heat, or pain that often starts in the upper part of your belly, just below your breastbone (sternum). This feeling (called heartburn) may spread in waves upward into your throat, and you may have a sour taste in your mouth. Heartburn is sometimes called indigestion, acid regurgitation, sour stomach, or pyrosis.

Inflammatory Bowel Disease

What Do Teens Need to Know About IBD?
Let’s talk basics. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic, lifelong disease that causes inflammation of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The two main types of IBD are Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis.

Your GI tract is responsible for digestion of food, absorption of nutrients, and elimination of waste from your body. The GI tract starts with your mouth and continues down your throat into your esophagus, and through your stomach, small intestine, large intestine, and rectum, ending with your anus. Inflammation caused by IBD makes the affected GI organs work improperly.
Information taken from https://www.crohnscolitisfoundation.org/youth-parent-resources/teens


NG Tube

What is a NG?

NG is the short way of saying nasogastric tube. Naso means nose and gastric means stomach. So a NG goes into your nose and down into your stomach. The NG is actually a long, very bendy flexible tube. It will be taped to your nose and cheek.

Why do I need to have a NG?

Sometimes you will have a NG if you have to take special medicine that you are having a difficult time drinking by mouth. Other times, you may have a NG to help you get the food and nutrients that you body needs, especially if you are not eating or are unable to eat. A NG tube may also be used to drain extra fluid or air from your stomach.

What does a NG look like?

Image result for nasogastric tube parts

The NG is a long, very bendy flexible tube. It may be attached to a bag that hangs from a pole. The pole is the same pole used to hang an IV (intravenous) bag. The bag contains food or medicine depending on what you need. There may be a small computer attached to the NG, the computer controls how fast or slow the medicine or food moves into your stomach. The computer will beep when the medicine or food is almost done, or if the battery is low, it beeps even if there is a bend in the plastic tube. The beep tells the nurses to come and check your NG. If the NG is being used for draining fluid from your stomach, then it may be connected to a machine on the wall that will help remove the extra stomach fluid. If this is the type of NG you have, you may hear a noise like a gurgling sound when the NG is working.

What happens when I have a NG?

A nurse will come to you to insert the NG.   He/she will measure the length the NG has to be by measuring from the tip of your nose to your ear, and then down to your stomach area. The nurse marks the tube to know how far it has to go in to reach your stomach.

The tip of the NG will be covered in a clear jelly, this helps to make it slippery. The nurse will then start sliding it into your nose, and move it gently down your throat and into your stomach. The nurse may ask you to drink water and swallow as it is happening, this can help it to go down easier.

Once it is in place the nurse will check to make sure that it is in the right place. Also, the nurse will use a small strip of paper to check to make sure that the fluid from the tube is stomach fluid. The paper will change colour with the fluid that lets the nurse know that it is stomach fluid, which means that the tube is in the right spot.

Once it is in the right place, the nurse will use soft tape to hold the NG tube in place. The tape will be on your cheek and maybe on your nose.

What will the NG feel like?

? It will feel uncomfortable when it is going into your nose.

? You may feel like you have to throw up or gag when it is going in.

? You may feel like you have something stuck in your throat after the tube is in for the first little while until you get used to the tube being there.

Preparing for the test

There is nothing that you need to do to prepare a NG. You do not have to go anywhere to have the test done; your nurse will come into your room to do it.


If you have any questions about the test, always ask! You can have your parents and/or child life specialist with you during the procedure to help you.

This content has been reviewed and approved by health care team members at McMaster Children’s Hospital in Hamilton, Ontario. All content is for educational purposes only. For further information, please speak with your health care team.


What is an Endoscopy?

Endoscopy is a test that takes pictures of your esophagus, stomach and small intestine. These 3 areas are also known as your digestive tract. Scopy means a scope, this helps the doctor to find things, it uses a tiny camera with a light that looks around and takes pictures.

Important Words

  • Esophagus: a tube or pipe inside your body that moves food from the back of your throat to your stomach
  • Stomach: is attached to your esophagus. This is where the food goes after you have swallowed it
  • Small Intestine: breaks down the food you have eaten so that your body can absorb the good parts in food that give you energy and make you grow (like vitamins, protein and carbohydrates)

Why do I need to have an Endoscopy?

The doctor needs to see inside your esophagus, stomach and small intestine to see how it is working and to find out what they need to do to help you. An X-Ray cannot see inside these body parts, so an endoscopy has to be done.

What does an Endoscopy look like?

An endoscopy has a tiny video camera (scope) and a light at the end of a small very flexible tube, there is also a computer and TV screen. The light helps the doctor to see inside your body.  The video camera can take a video or pictures of inside your esophagus, stomach and small intestine. These pictures will help the doctor to see what is happening inside your body. There is also a bed that is beside the computer where you will lie down.

What happens when I have an Endoscopy?

A porter will come to bring you to the special room to have the endoscopy.  A nurse and gastroenterologist (a doctor who is the expert about your digestive tract) will greet you and explain what will happen.

The nurse will give you a gown to wear, this looks like a backward housecoat, you may already be wearing one. The nurse will help you to get on the bed, she will also tell you to lie on your left side; this is the best way for you to lie down for the test. The nurse may put a blanket over you to keep you warm and make sure you are covered. The nurse will also put a plastic clip onto your finger. This clip does not hurt and it glows red. This clip is called an oximeter and it measures how much oxygen you have in your blood. You will also have a blood pressure cuff put on your arm to measure how fast or slow your blood is moving around your body. The blood pressure cuff will go on and give your arm a little squeeze and then off, relaxing it. This happens a few times during the test.

The nurse will spray a special medicine in your throat, this medicine helps the sides and back of you throat to feel numb so that you will not really feel the tube in you throat.

The doctor will put on hospital gloves. Then he will take the scope and he will place it gently into your mouth and slide it down your esophagus to your stomach. As it is sliding down your esophagus, the doctor will ask you to swallow. You may feel that this is hard, but it will help the tube to go down so that the pictures can be taken. This will feel uncomfortable, but the test will not last long, usually it can be 5 minutes to 15 minutes.

While the doctor is looking in your esophagus and stomach, he will also be taking pictures of it. He may also take a tiny piece of it to look at it more closely, this is called a biopsy. It is important to remember to relax and lie still. Once the test is done, the scope will be removed.

Someone like your mom or dad can stay in the room with you during the test. When it is over, you will rest for a little while and then you will be brought back to your room.

What will the Endoscopy feel like?

The endoscopy will feel uncomfortable when the scope first goes into your mouth and starts to go down your throat. You may feel like you have something stuck in your throat or that you might throw up.

Since the tube is so small, you will still be able to breathe normally. All these feelings are normal, this happens to everyone who has this test. Remember that you will be feeling sleepy during the test..

Preparing for the test

Your nurse will give you the information you need to help you get ready to have your endoscopy. You will be told that you will not be able to eat or drink anything before the test.


If you have any questions about the test, always ask!

This content has been reviewed and approved by health care team members at McMaster Children’s Hospital in Hamilton, Ontario. All content is for educational purposes only. For further information, please speak with your health care team.